Israel in a Jewish state founded in 1948 in the Middle East, in an area of which Palestine had previously control under British mandate. Israel was born following the sudden arrival of Holocaust refugees during the Second World War, with the hope of creat a true Jewish nation. Following independence, Israel was attacked by neighbouring Arab countries, but defeated them. In 1967 and 1973 Israel struggled with The War of Six Days and War of Yom Kippur. After the Six-Day War, Israel occupied the Palestinian territory of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

The circumstances of this agreement angered the Palestinians, who had joined forces under the guidance of their leader Yassar Arafat. The armed struggle of the Palestinians culminated in 1987, with the First Intifada. Subsequent talks lead to the birth of the ANP, but Israel still has soldiers in occupied territories. It was only in 2005 that Israel abandoned the Gaza Strip. The capital recognised by almost all countries is Tel Aviv, but the government and the house of parliament are in Jerusalem.