Iraq is a Middle East country positioned between the Ferticle Cresent, the Eufrates and the Persian Gulf. It is one of the most important Arab countries, founded in 1932 following independence from Great Brittain. At its heart there are numerous ethnic and religous communities, the most important of which are the Arab Muslim Shias, in the south of the country, the Suni muslims, in the center, and finally the Kurds that live autonomously in the north of Iraq. From 1979 to 2003 the country was governed by Saddam Hussein, representing the Ba’ath party. It is one of the longest and most significant periods of governments from a political standpoint, in the history of the region.

During this period, Iraq was involved in three wars, that against Iran from 1980 to 1988, the first Gulf War in 1991 and the Second Gulf War in 2003, with the final one leading to the end of Saddam Hussein’s reign, brought about by America. Following this however, the country entered a period of great instability. In 2007 violence broke out between between the Sunni and Shia Muslim communities, and from 2014 to 2017 the north of Iraq witnessed the expansion of ISIS. The capital is Baghdad.