Egypt is an Arab country whose territory is largely within the African continent, while the Sinai peninsula is situated in Asia. Having become independent in 1922, Egypt was lead from 1953 to 1970 by Gamal Abdel Nasser. His presidency was important for Egypt, as well as for the Arab world: it is in fact from Nassar that the term “pan-Arabism” is coined. Following Nasser there was Sadat, who was assassinated in 1981. The successor of Sadat was Hosni Mubarak.

The term of the latter ended only in 2011, following protests in the city square at the beginning of the Arab Spring. The 2012 elections crowned Morsi, of the Muslim Brotherhood. Following further protests, since July 2013 the president is el-Sisi. Egypt has a population of 104 million, the capital is Cairo. Other important cities are Alexandria and Luxor.