Bulgaria is a country situated between the Black Sea and the Balkan Peninsula. Making up large parts of the Bulgarian population are ethnic Slavs who in the seventh century, following the foundation of christianity as vast empire, made what is considered the first true national ethnicity of the Bulgarian nation. After centuries of Ottoman rule, Bulgaria attained national independence in 1908. After the Second World War, it was one of the countries in the Warsaw Pact, and instated a government led by a localised communist party.

Following the end of communist rule, Bulgarians adopted a new multi party system. Since 2000 it has been a member of Nato, and since 2007 part of the European Union. Its capital is Sofia.