Angola is a southern African country and the capital is Luanda. After a number of decades as a Portugese colony, the country gained independence in 1975, following the Carnation Revolution which put to an end the long Lusitanian military regime, and a new democratic government came into power, agreeing terms with local independentists who had been fighting the Portugese since 1961. From 1975 to 2002, in three distinct phases, Angola was bloodied by a long civil war between the communist MPLA movement and their adversaries the UNITA. In 2002 the first successful preservation of power was achieved. After the "Father of the Homeland" Agostinho Neto, in 1979 the MPLA and the country's leadership was succeeded by Josè Eduardo dos Santos, who led the development of Angola through the exploitation of oil revenues, only leaving power in 2017 in place of his successor João Lourenço.